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Established in June 1992 and spun off in mid-2003 as an independent operation, Wyith Institute™ is committed to meeting with the ever-changing needs of the working learners in order to transform them into knowledge bearers necessary for the sustained development of the world. The Institute also provides online communication analytics, business intelligence and applications design, knowledge discovery and its related management, and various training services.

Research at Wyith Institute™ is interdisciplinary in nature. We focus on the creative extraction of information from raw data and derive from it useful intelligence for the benefit of humanity.

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Classification of theories and introduction to the use of traditional chinese medicines. Visit

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Wyith Institute™ selected to provide digital payment and microfinancing solution to the Sovereign National Indigenous Government of Mexico

Mexico City and Hong Kong SAR (February 12, 2021) – Wyith Institute™ announces another of its major breakthrough today in its digital token and asset management service. Gubernatura Nacional Indígena de México, i.e. the Sovereign National Indigenous Government of the United States of Mexico (known as GNI), announced today that it has chosen Wyith Institute™ to help roll out its first adoption of its digital payment currency using Bankcoin Reserve at Wyith (BCR@W), a forked version of Bankcoin Reserve (BCR) modulated and designed by Wyith Institute™.

"GNI sees that the digital age is upon us and society is headed for the future. Hence the Indigenous Nation wishes to be part of the digital age and accompany innovation towards present day and future success," remarked the Honorable Hipólito Arriaga Pote, Governor of GNI, the Sovereign National Indigenous Government of the United States of Mexico.

"We also recognize the necessity of having its own digital asset coin to help with the Indigenous Nation's citizens pay for day-to-day needs such as education, potable water, and general daily goods and services," added Alberto Castellanos, Administrator of GNI.

Honorable Hipólito Arriaga Pote with Ruth Ditucci, Director of Wyith Institute™ at United Nations

Photo above (front row left to right): Ruthie DiTucci (Director, Wyith Institute™), The Honorable Hipólito Arriaga Pote (Governor of Gubernatura Nacional Indígena de México), Chief Howard Thompson of the Mohawk Nation (USA); middle row (far right): Armando Gomez of GNI

"We have assisted or have worked with the GNI previously in a number of humanitarian projects for the indigenous people of Mexico, including the 50/50 automobile loan program, the water machine project, the land and livelihood project that relates to food cultivation, education (which is also from Wyith Institute™), and now the first digital asset coin for the indigenous government," added Ruth Ditucci, Director of Wyith Institute™. "We are confident that our team shall be able to provide the most suitable solution to the indigenous government as they adopt this latest blockchain technology through our Institute," she continued.

Dr Raymond Cheng, President and CEO of Wyith Institute™, also commented on this new endeavour. "We are indeed honored to be again trusted by an entire nation's government, i.e. the National Indigenous Government of Mexico, with our capability in bringing them the necessary technology and know-how in the implementation of such a large-scale microfinancing programme through using the BCR@W coin designed by Wyith Institute™. This recognition from GNI is a true, living testimony of both the capability as well as the integrity of the Institute and its services, and is also a highly appreciated act of trust in the related peripheral services Wyith Institute™ provides, including our business intelligence services and our KYT (Know-Your-Transaction), KYC (Know-Your-Customer) programmes. We do see a lot of challenges ahead, but we are both assured and optimistic that our team at Wyith Institute™ will be able to carry out the said programme with utmost care and dedication, building even stronger friendships with our indigenous friends from Mexico."

While Mexico is the 10th most populated country with a population of 126 million (as of 2020), the most populous Spanish-speaking country, and the third-most populous in the Americas after the United States and Brazil, the indigenous Mexican people make up about one-fifth to a quarter (amounting to around 30 million plus) of Mexico's population. Gubernatura Nacional Indígena de México, the Sovereign National Indigenous Government of the United States of Mexico, is the official governorship for the indigenous Mexicans.

For details, please download the full press release (146kb) or visit EIN Presswire

Dr Raymond Cheng interviewed by Dr Bryce Fabro on HERO EdTV 2021

Manila and Hong Kong (Jan 29, 2021) – Dr Raymond Cheng, CEO of Wyith Institute™ was invited to appear on HERO EdTV for a one-hour, one-on-one live interview via Zoom with Dr Bryce Fabro, Founder & Chair of HERO. The topic of the interview was on the impact of cultural differences in the adoption of education technology during COVID-19. While the two agreed that much has to be further scrutinized, cultural differences do play a vital role in the effectiveness of teaching and learning under the new normal. The interview was broadcasted live.


Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

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Wyith Institute™ to hold nation-wide examination for the Philippine College of Radiology

Manila, Philippines & Hong Kong SAR, China (December 28, 2020) – We are glad to announce another leap forward in Wyith Institute™s achievements in its examination and proctoring service. A new contract has recently been inked with the Philippine Board of Radiology (PBR). Dr Jay Paguig, representing the PBR, and Dr Raymond Cheng, CEO of Wyith Institute™ signed a contract authorizing the Institute as the service provider for conducting the upcoming online PBR Examination to be held over three weeks, from 10th to 24 January, 2021. This is the result of the successful conduct of the nationwide CT-MRI Online Board Exam which was held on December 12, 2020 by virtue of a contract signed between Wyith Institute™ and the CT-MRI Society of the Philippines. Prior to the actual Philippine Board of Radiology examination to be held in January 2021, a mock examination has also been conducted on December 28, 2020. This is in line with the new normal of administering examinations and as mandated by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) of the Philippines. Dr Raymond Cheng of Wyith Institute™ also took the opportunity to ensure that the examination will be done with full integrity while safeguarding professionalism as it adheres to ethics and privacy of the PBR Board as a whole.

"It is now, more than ever, that we all need to work together to put emphasis and greater importance in the continuation of humanitity through good practices, be it medical or not, for here lies the key solution to problems the world is facing nowadays. Wyith Institute™ will not let the pandemic cloud our determination and eagerness to harness our quest for excellence in bringing affordable education to learners and assisting the various field of professional development, especially when it can now be a matter of life and death", commented Dr Raymond Cheng.

For further details concering the Institute's Exam and Proctering Service, please email us at You may also want to visit the Philippine College of Radiology's website at

Dr Raymond Cheng as Keynote Speaker for 4th ICREMSS 2020 Online

Dr Raymond Cheng with participants of the 4th ICREMSS
Hong Kong & Philippines (December 19-21, 2020) – With the aim to give scholars, academicians, and professionals a chance to present their papers, submit their abstracts, and to attend the virtual conference as paper presenters and/or observers amind CoVID-19, the 4th International Conference in Research, Education, Management,and the Social Sciences (ICREMSS 2020) was held online via Zoom from December 19 to 21, 2020. Dr Raymond Cheng, CEO of Wyith Institute™ graced the online conference as Guest of Honor and Speaker. He reiterated the importance of research and the notable contribution and important role of every academician and professional in combatting the virus to help individuals in information dissemination on how to win the war on CoVID-19 pandemic. Dr Cheng likewise sent his warm congratulations and early Yuletide greetings all the way from Hong Kong to those who attended the online conference.

The conference ended with a blast with everyone posing virtually via Zoom for a posterity photo op. For more information, please visit

Wyith Institute™ gets second (final) board approval for nation-wide CT & MRI professional examination 2020 in the Philippines

Manila, Philippines & Hong Kong SAR, China (November 14, 2020) – Further to the Institute's announcement on October 27, 2020 about being awarded a contract by the CT-MRI Society of the Philippines (CT-MRISP) in holding its nation-wide board examination for practicing medical professionals in the Philippines, a qualification which is regulated by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) of the country, Wyith Institute™ is pleased to announce again today that the Institute has satisfied the CT-MRISP Board of Directors again with its online mock examination system during the final prototype test on November 14, 2020. The examination system, which is to be launched to all the candidates in two weeks' time, will also be the system to be used for the actual examination to be held in December 2020. This is the first time a national examination contract is awarded to Wyith Institute™ under the new normal.

"We are extremely excited about the system we designed being approved by the Board again as this is a government-regulated examination at the national level and we hope that our new examination system will not only be useful to CT-MRI professionals in the Philippines but also to many other professional institutions in other countries under the new normal. We are now in rigorous discussion with a number of other interested professional institutions around Asia and the Oceania and we are confident that the way we at Wyith Institute™ securely delivers regulated board examinations will not only meet the highest standards of integrity and professionalism but also our unwavering commitment to ethics and protection of privacy", commented Dr Raymond Cheng, CEO of Wyith Institute™.

For details, please download the full press release (142kb) or visit EIN Presswire

Wyith Institute™ to hold CT-MRI Board Examination

Manila, Philippines (October 27, 2020) – The day marked another milestone for Wyith Institute™ as it announced its latest partnership with the CT-MRI Society of the Philippines (CT-MRISP) in holding its nation-wide board examination on CT (Computed Tomography) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) for practicing medical professionals.

Dr Alfred Madamba, MD, and Dr Jerome Mondala, MD, representing the CT-MRI Society of the Philippines, today inked a contract acknowledging Wyith Institute™ as the service provider of the Society's annual nation-wide board examination on CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) under the new normal.

Dr Raymond Cheng, President and CEO of Wyith Institute™ and former Divisional Vice President of St. John Ambulance in Hong Kong as well as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Public Health (UK), warmly welcomed the partnership and pledged that the Institute would provide its every resource to perfect the offering of the board examination, which is to be held this December.

The CT-MRI board examination is open to practicing physicians and medical technologists working at hospitals in the Philippines. And as of 2017, the country has a total of 40,775 doctors and 13,413 medical technologists, which translates to approximately 3.9 doctors and 1.3 medical technologists for every 10,000 of the population. Medical professionals who passed the examination are allowed to use the FCT-MRISP designation after their names.

Established in 1989 and affiliated as a subspecialty society of the Philippine College of Radiology, the CT-MRI Society of the Philippines promotes, encourages, enhances, and updates specialized medical knowledge in the fields of Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at par with international standards through research and open exchange of scientific ideas by regularly holding conferences, lectures and various continuing professional development (CPD) programmes accredited by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) of the Philippines.

Participants of 1st IRCISES with Chairlady, Ms Julie Calma

30th SEA Games Philippines, We Win As One

Dr Raymond Cheng addresses 1st IRCISES through video conferencing

Baguio City (March 8, 2020) – The 1st International Research Conference in Sports, Education, and the Sciences (i.e. 1st IRCISES) was held on March 7-8, 2020 at the Crown Legacy Hotel in the Summer Capital of the Philippines, Baguio City with the theme "Research as One, Win as One" (which resonates with the theme of the 30th Southeast Asian Games: "We win as One"). Organized by Asian Intellect for Academic Organization and Development, Inc., Ms. Julie Ferrer, the conference chair as well as Honorary Professor of Wyith Institute™, together with the conference co-chair, Dr. Raymond Cheng, CEO of Wyith Institute™, once again gathered scholars and research enthusiasts to present their papers covering topics in sports, education and sciences. For the first time through video conferencing, Dr Cheng virtually greeted and welcomed the participants during the opening session amid COVID-19.

The conference served as the second part, or a re-run, of the 1st IRCISES which was held in December 2019 at Clarkfield, Pampanga. The March 7-8, 2020 Conference was specially arranged to cater to those who chose not to attend the Clark session as the city was extremely busy back then holding the SEAGames.

IRCISES was a conference endorsed by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) of the Philippines, For more info, please visit

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Dr Raymond Cheng as Keynote Speaker for 4th ICREMSS 2019, Subic Bay

Dr Raymond Cheng with participants of the 4th ICREMSS

Dr Raymond Cheng at the 4th ICREMSS

Dr Raymond Cheng with participants of the 4th ICREMSS

Subic Bay, Philippines (November 25, 2019) – Organized by Asian Intellect for Academic Organization and Development, the 4th International Conference in Research, Education, Management and the Social Sciences (4th ICREMSS) was held at Subic Bay Travellers Hotel and Events Center from November 23 to 25, 2019. For a second time, Ms Julie Ferrer, the President of Asian Intellect and the Conference Chair, invited the highly sought-after resource speaker, Dr Raymond Cheng, CEO of Wyith Institute™, to be the keynote speaker. Dr Cheng talked about the modern trends on research, and its application to education, management and social sciences. He also tackled how Industrial Revolution 4.0 could greatly affect the trends and the way people see research and how the blockchain technology can help fuel the trend. Dr Cheng wowed the audience with his wit and knowledge on different fields of research and hence, made them ask for more conferences from the Chair, and of course, just as at the 2nd ICREMSS, participants again requested Dr Cheng to be the resource speaker in the coming conference. Attended the conference were educators and experts from different colleges and universities all over the Philippines.

Dr Raymond Cheng invited to 1st National Conference in Engineering, Science and Technology 2019 hosted by NEUST and UNP in Cabanatuan
Cabanatuan, Philippines (November 23, 2019) – Jointly organized by the Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology (NEUST) in Cabanatuan City and the University of Northern Philippines (UNP) in Benguet Province, the 1st National Conference in Engineering, Science and Technology 2019 was held from November 21st to 23rd, 2019 at the NEUST Sumacab Campus in Cabanatuan City. Dr Raymond Cheng, the President and CEO of Wyith Institute™, was invited as the speaker for the conference. According to Vice President for Research, Extension and Training, Dr Rachael R Moralde, Dr Cheng was uninanimously chosen as the resource speaker and has passed with flying colors the scrutiny of the organizers of the conference. Dr Cheng talked about Wyith's award-winning blockchain technology as well as Industrial Revolution 4.0 as applied to engineering, science and technology, plus he also highlighted salient points on new mindsets as applicable to different engineering researches and how these can be utilized by engineers and academians, especially in state-owned colleges and universities which are running on meager resources and how these researches might fuel income generation. The national conference was participated in by engineering professors, professional engineers and academicians from different colleges and universities in the Philippines. The conference ended with photo taking session with the resource speaker and awarding of certificates.

Established in 1908, NEUST is located in Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija, and is one of the largest state universities in Central Luzon, the Philippines. It has 6 campuses and 7 off-campus programs scattered around the province with a total enrollment of over 22,000. The university has just recently celebrated its centennial year in 2008. For details about the University, please visit

Established in 1906, UNP is the first and oldest state university in Northern Luzon, Philippines, and is one of three state-owned educational institutions of higher learning operating in the province of Ilocos Sur. For details, please visit the University website at

Dr Raymond Cheng explaining the blockchain technology for streamlining university operations

Dr Raymond Cheng receiving Certificate of Appreciation from NEUST-UNP officials

Dr Raymond Cheng speaks at the 7th International Higher Education Research Forum 2019 of Philippine Higher Education Research Consortium
Dr Raymond Cheng with Hon. Rodolfo C. Garcia, Undersecretary and Chief of Staff, Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Photo above: Dr Raymond Cheng with Hon Rodolfo C. Garcia, Undersecretary and Chief of Staff, Department of Environment and Natural Resources

The seven members of PHERC are: Marikina Polytechnic College, Philippine Normal University, Technological University of the Philippines, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Rizal Technological University, Eulogio Amang Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology, and Philippine State College of Aeronautics.

Quezon City, Philippines (August 27-29, 2019) – With the theme "The Future of Higher Education Research for Industry 4.0", the 7th International Higher Education Research Forum 2019 organized by the Philippine Higher Education Research Consortium was held at the Novotel Araneta Center in Cubao, Quezon City, Philippines. This year's forum has a line up of high calibre and seasoned speakers from around the world (including Dr Joselito B. Gutierrez, IHERF 2019 Chair and SUC President of Marikina Polytechnic College; Mr Hee Joh Liang, Deputy Principal of Singapore Polytechnic; Dr Hai Dai Nguyen, Co-founder of Wow Bali Group Inc., Indonesia; as well as Dr Raymond Cheng, CEO of Wyith Institute™). More than 500 academicians, mostly in the field of research, witnessed the englightening speeches by the speakers, participated in the thought-provoking Open Floor Forum (see photo below), and presented their scholarly papers as well. Dr Cheng tackled the application of blockchains in various research, teaching opportunities, as well as management and administration in higher education, wherein his expertise and invaluable insights were once again wholeheartedly shared to the audience.

IHREF 2019 Open Floor Forum

The Philippine Higher Education Research Consortium (PHERC) is a research organization managed by seven state universities and colleges in the Manila capital region. IHERF 2019 is a forum organized by PHERC and one that aims to promote, strengthen and mainstream research outputs of higher education institutions in various fields of disciplines and to provide a venue for sharing and discussing research issues, concerns, and output in a scholarly and friendly environment.

This event is endorsed by the Commission for Higher Education (CHED) as well as the Philippine Association of State Universities and Colleges (PASUC).

Wyith CEO named Honorary Advisor for HERO Summit Series
Parañaque, Philippines (August 19, 2019) – In preparation for the 2nd year of a five-year HERO Summit Series (2018-2022) to be held in October 2019 in Ottawa, Canada, a meeting of the Board of Advisers and the prime movers of the Summit was held at Solaire Resort and Casino in Manila, Philippines. Dr Bryce Fabro, the Chairman of the HERO Summit Series invited and welcomed Dr Raymond Cheng, CEO of Wyith Institute™, to become Honorary Adviser for the 2nd HERO Summit. Describing Dr Cheng as the brain behind the HERO Summit Series concept, Dr Fabro emphasized again the important contribution of Dr Cheng as the think tank of the Summit and that the HERO Summit Series wouldn't be possible without his insights and ideas. The meeting also highlighted a ceremonial signing of letters of acceptance by the consultants and advisers as pledge of support to all HERO undertakings and future activities. Dr Cheng was the Keynote Speaker for the 1st HERO Summit held in August 2018, in Singapore.

Founded in 2018 in Singapore, the HERO Summit Series is a platform that brings together universities, industries and solution providers. The Series trail blazes new opportunities for its members and create an essential engagement to address university brand ranking, in preparation for the 4th industrial revolution and the development of programs to improve the employability skills of graduates. For further details about HERO Summit Series, please visit

HERO Summit Series Board of Directors and Advisors

HERO Summit Series

Wyith Institute™ and University of the Assumption enters into Memorandum of Agreement

Maingate of University of the Assumption

UA students at the Computer Lab

UA professors and teaching staff members

University of the Assumption Logo
San Fernando, Philippines (June 27, 2019) – Committing itself to the integral development of Catholic leaders through academic excellence, Christian formation, and community service, the University of the Assumption (UA) from San Fernando, Philippines announced a collaboration with Wyith Institute™ from Hong Kong that will bring quality education to students from around Asia, starting with the Greater China region, Vietnam, as well as India. Initially, six undergraduate degree programmes will be launched and offered in the first stage of the collaboration, which include the following:
  • BS in Business Administration with majors in Operations Management or in Marketing Management,
  • BS in Psychology,
  • Bachelor in Human Services,
  • Bachelor in Elementary Education,
  • Bachelor in Secondary Education, and
  • AB in Communication.

The collaboration, bounded in the form of a Memorandum of Agreement (MoA), was signed by Rev Fr Joselito Henson, SThD, University President of UA and Dr Raymond Cheng, CEO of Wyith Institute™.

The MoA signing was simple but solemn and was witnessed by officials from both UA and Wyith Institute™, including from UA: Dr Dexter Balajadia (Director for Linkages and International Relations), Dr Mediatriz D Martin (Vice-President for Academic Affairs), Mrs Belina S Katigbak (Vice-President for Finance), Mrs Leila Luz Caballa (Director of Guidance and Admissions), Mrs Precious Bernadette Estrada (Director of Student Affairs Office), Dr Arnel Sicat (Director of Research and Planning), and Ms Khriselle Castillo (Quality Management Officer); and from Wyith Institute™: Ms Irene Macapagal (Head of Research Support), see photo above.

Founded in 1963 as the Assumption College, the University of the Assumption (UA) is a private archdiocesan Catholic university in the City of San Fernando, Philippines. The college was granted University status by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and was named University of the Assumption on March 29, 1980. For further details about UA, please visit

Dr Raymond Cheng conducting a seminar on Business Glocalization
			at Central Luzon State University 2016

Above: Dr Raymond Cheng with approximately 2,000 undergraduate business students participating in his seminar at Central Luzon State University, Muñoz, Philippines, September 30, 2016.

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Bankcoin Reserve (BCR) recipients please remember to register for and claim your new BCR@W coins below.

Register here now!

Our upcoming seminar on Bankcoin Reserve via Wyith (BCR@W):

Upcoming Seminars on BCR@W and Blockchain in 2021

Online, via Zoom

The first cryptocurrency backed by nine Australian patents, Bankcoin Reserve via Wyith (BCR@W) was instituted to provide the Bankcoin community with an AML/KYC-compliant digital asset that is both secure and maintains a stable pricing mechanism. The price of 1 BCR@W is pegged against the current highest resistance gold oz price since March 2014, i.e. USD1,375.00. Self-regulated and complying with both national and international regulations, the BCR@W allows various business to be conducted on the basis of not just a secure and reliable platform but also a relatively stable price.

Response to the CoVID19 pandemic

Owing to the current CoVID-19 pandemic, Bankcoin seminars previously scheduled in Manila (February), Hong Kong (March), and Guangzhou, China (May) have all been cancelled. We shall announce updates regarding upcoming seminars as soon as the pandemic subsides. We at Wyith Institute™ wish you all safe and healthy amid the pandemic and our prayers are with the frontliners. May God bless us all.

Previous Bankcoin Reserve (BCR@W) Seminars

The previous Blockchain and Bankcoin Reserve (BCR@W) seminars were held at:

  1. Changi Cove Hotel, Changi, Singapore, August 27, 2018
  2. Crown Legacy Hotel in Baguio, Philippines, September 28, 2018
  3. JJDG Auditorium, Wesleyan University-Philippines, October 27, 2018
  4. Aziza Paradise Hotel, Puerto Princesa City in Palawan, Philippines, December 8, 2018
  5. Royce Hotel & Casino, Metro Clark, Philippines, March 1, 2019
  6. Best Western Hotel, Angeles City, Philippines, May 10, 2019
  7. Novotel Manila Araneta Center, Manila, Philippines, August 28, 2019
  8. Online via Zoom (for holders from USA and Australia), November 24, 2020
During these seminars we had very different types of participants and they are either professors, university faculty members, business professionals or graduate students from various disciplines and fields eager in understanding how the new blockchain technology could help and possibly revolutionize their fields and what the Bankcoin Reserve at Wyith could do for them. Participants are not only interested in the current cryptocurrency market and its trends but are also very well focused toward the value of holding a patent-backed crytocurrency like the BCR@W. To know how you can be among the first to hold a Bankcoin Reserve via Wyith (BCR@W), email us at

Recent and upcoming publications:

Review of eyewear design and brand development: From culture to collocation to market exploration

R Cheng (2018)
Journal of Hong Kong Optical Manufacturers Association, Issue 2018 (February), pp.20-23

This paper provides a convenient review of how concepts on the glocalization of markets could possibly help eyewear manufacturers in Hong Kong to widen their scope in the exploration of new markets otherwise hidden from mainstream designers. The paper starts with reviewing previous literature on glocalization from various different angles and continued with looking at practical, real-life examples of how different local cultures around the world has interacted with the meaning of the eyewear and its design (and vice versa) and how these interactions have either hindered the market or could have been applied to create new markets for eyewear.
  ENVIRONMENT & SOCIETY   Water saving versus public opinion
R Cheng, FCK Wong & M Ma (2017)
Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Infrastructure Asset Management (INFRAASSETS3), held on October 30-31, 2017, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

This paper utilized the data recorded from the Hong Kong Tuen Mun Highway Green Roof Project (covering some 14,000 square meters – the largest green roof project in Asia completed in 2013, see above photo from contractor) in which driplines were installed (with solar wireless automatic irrigation system) and the respective water consumption was monitored for a period of 29 consecutive months. In order to understand the actual public response of the project, the paper combined corpus linguistics methods with engineering techniques to help us understand the difference between the response (in terms of public acceptance) from the perspective of corporate citizenship and the engineering facts (in terms of the actual water saving) from the angle of the pragmatic green-city conservationist.
  INFRASTRUCTURE   Infrastructure asset management review of tall residential buildings of major cities: Chicago, Hong Kong, and Singapore
R Cheng & I Ng (2017)
Journal of Built Environment, Technology and Engineering, Volume 3 (September), pp.130-172

There is only one residential skyscraper within China's top 100 tallest buildings in the crowded 24-million-population city of Shanghai, China (and eleven residential skyscrapers among the 134 tallest buildings, i.e. those taller than 150 metres), whereas there are comparatively a lot more skyscrapers used for residential purposes in equally densely populated cities like Hong Kong, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and, of course, Chicago and New York. This paper, hence, looked, from a historical perspective, how the development of tall buildings in Chicago, Hong Kong and Singapore have evolved to become what we see today. How does the tall building development history of a city help forge the people's view in terms of living in skyscrapers? Would such help provide explanations and hints as to the future development of skyscrapers in the other cities like Shanghai?
  MARKETS & CONSUMER BEHAVIOR   Country-of-origin, brand image, and brand loyalty of branded drugs in Ho Chi Ming City, Vietnam
R Cheng, LT Hong-Loan & LH Nguyen (2017)
Journal of Education & Social Science, Volume 7 (June), Issue 1, pp.228-243

While there has been numerous previous empirical studies investigating into a product's country-of-origin (COO) and its relationship with various factors, including but not limited to brand loyalty, brand awareness and perceived quality, etc., the findings were often inconsistent (Kaynak & Kara, 2000). This is especially true when it comes to the pharmaceutical industry in which the importance of COO seems to depend on the type medicine studied and its use in addition to the usual factors for other non-medicine products (say, perceived quality, product evaluations other than quality, affect, and purchase intentions). This paper aims to look at the pharmaceutical market of Vietnam by studying the people's brand awareness, brand loyalty, perceived quality and preferences toward COO of branded drugs available in the Ho Chi Ming City. Results show that Vietnamese, unlike Americans (as in Quelch's (1997) Aspirin experiment), tend to be biased by COO more than by brands, implying a very different market than some of its Asian neighbors.
  CRIMINAL JUSTICE   A second perspective on the sustained anti-corruption strategy in Hong Kong: A historical review
R Cheng (2017)
Journal of Education & Social Science, Volume 7 (June), Issue 1, pp.219-227
Over the years, Hong Kong has built up a clean culture and is recognized as one of the role models for fighting corruption. Syndicated and petty corruption in the public sector has become a thing of the past and irregularities in the private sector have been reduced substantially (Li, 2001). There has been radical change in the culture too, "from tolerance of corruption to clear rejection" (Chui, 2000). In fact, some of the main reasons for Hong Kong's success include (a) the creation of the unimpeachable anti-corruption agency in 1974, the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) which was established with a well-planned long-term strategy that uses a three-pronged attack on corruption via investigation, prevention and education; (b) the attention to all corruption reports; and (c) the ability to maintain confidentiality (de Speville, 1999). In addition, though compelled by public criticism, the recognition of corruption as a real problem by the then British colonial government in Hong Kong and its subsequent commitment to solving it also constituted a major factor of success (Quah, 2004). This "commitment", however, is not just one single policy or legislation, but is a whole range of various complicated administrative policies, legal initiatives, and financial tactics applied consistently and strategically over a long period of time hence effectively creating an environment "suitable for fighting corruption." In this paper, we shall review from a new strategic viewpoint the "passive commitments" of the Hong Kong colonial government in terms of (a) the local economic and social statistics for a 25-year period spanning 1967 thru 1992 and (b) the behavioral patterns and theories of people. We shall also relate the above to see how these had possibly and indirectly contributed to make corruption a low gain and high risk crime and how these had fostered the effectiveness of the corresponding legislations and helped the work of the local anti-corruption agency. Last but not the least, the paper also made recommendations for the future enhancement for the current Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (HKSARG) in its ever on-going combat against corruption by means of using the findings.
  QUALITY RESEARCH TRENDS   Quality research and cultural trends: Is there a cultural pattern that favors service quality research?
R Cheng & C Wong (2017)
International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, Volume 12 (April), Issue 3, pp.1-10

Witell, Lofgren and Dahlgaard (2013) summarized and described the time periods for quality-related researches into three noticeable phases of development, namely, Emergence (1984-1999), Exploration (2000-2008), and Explosion (2009-2012). Such a finding aligns logically with the world cultural values taken from the Inglehart-Welzel cultural map from 1981 to 2015 during which various regions of the world, in general, were all moving away from survival values and have become more self-expressive as the world economy transformed itself from industrial to post-industrial economy (Kenney, 2010, p.215). In fact, more and more researches published during the 'Explosion' period (2009-2012) were geared toward researching into intangible services – which were found to be essential in the modern, post-industrial economics system (Andrii, 2015). This paper, hence, attempted to look at such a trend to see if there are any differences between countries that are 'strong in service quality research' (or 'SERVQUAL' research) and those that are not through determining the differences between the Pearson's correlation coefficients of Hofstede's cultural dimension values (1994; 1997; 2001; 2010) for the list of top 10 countries producing the highest number of service quality related researches as per the research of Wang et al. (2015) and that of all the 70 countries studied by Hofstede. The study revealed that differences in cultural dimensions do exist and that being strong in SERVQUAL research does not necessarily mean having weak (large power distance) or dependent (collectivistic) customers.
  LEADERSHIP & SOCIAL MEDIA   Social networks and the evolution of leadership theories in the technical environment
R Cheng & W Tang (2017)
Southeast Asia Journal of Contemporary Business, Economics and Law, Volume 12 (April), Issue 3 (Economics), pp.9-17

Historically, major over-investment bubbles and their subsequent crashes often bring about profound socioeconomic changes. Leadership style also evolved so as to adopt to such change, from the Great Man Theory (Dobbins & Platz, 1986) to Leader-member Relations (LMX)(Duchon, Green & Taber, 1986). Peer-to-peer technology further expanded the scalability of the already rapidly growing computer networks (Nguyen, 2008) and fostered the adaptation of team work in the technical environment. This paper attempts to look at the evolution of social networks from the early 1980s to the present day along with the evolution of leadership theories over the last 20 years. It is found that there are striking similarities between leadership theories in the technical environment and the advancement of social networks.
  LANGUAGE & SOCIETY   Journal paper review: "A corpus driven study of the potential for vocabulary learning through watching movies" - From incidental vocabulary learning to social development
R Cheng, R Reyes-Moralde & I Ng (2017)
Journal of Education & Social Science, Volume 6 (February), Issue 2, pp.251-262

This review paper attempts to justify and investigate from a different perspective the postulate that there is potential for significant incidental vocabulary learning by watching movies regularly over time. Our paper revealed that such a valuable and incidental learning experience could in fact be slowly fading as our forthcoming generations may no longer appreciate or become unaware of the very moments of those ad hoc, instant and intuitive learning experiences that were once known to the many past generations as incidental and natural as the newer generation's attention span shortens. Those who would, on the contrary, generally come from less developed or developing countries where contact with the English-speaking world is relatively limited.
  FREEDOM OF SPEECH   What does the Inglehart-Welzel cultural map tell us about the freedom of Hong Kong?
R Cheng, AH Yau & S Ho (2016)
Southeast Asia Journal of Contemporary Business, Economics and Law, Volume 11 (December), Issue 3 (Economics), pp.8-15
Hong Kong's press freedom score has been declining over the last 10 years, from #28 in 2005 to some #41 in 2015. Some attributed this to the 'rapidly narrowing' space for free speech since the city was returned to China in 1997. By qualitatively looking at previous landmark court cases and high profile rulings related to areas like the freedom of assembly, freedom of expression, and the right of abode, this review paper attempts to find out if the Inglehart-Welzel cultural values (recorded over the last 20 years) could help explain the current situation in Hong Kong and what insights, via this new perspective, could possibly be derived.
  PRODUCTION QUALITY   How product attributes affect KPI: A case study of a 500-worker metal stamping factory in People's Republic of China
R Cheng & P Li (2016)
International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, Volume 11 (December), Issue 2, pp.16-25
Decoene and Bruggeman (2006) suggested the use of balanced scorecard to help align business strategy with managers' motivation in measuring performance yet such an idea could only work for large enterprises because 'substantial barriers to strategic performance management' do exist for SMEs (Hudson, Smart, & Bourne, 2001) and that 'actionable knowledge' could be hard to acquire when performance for SMEs in itself can already be difficult to measure (Meyer, 2005). This paper, hence, proposed measuring a list of standardized and easy-to-measure KPIs as well as some simple attributes of the products to see if there is any relationship between them. Data were recorded from a relatively small-scale, traditional 500-worker metal stamping factory in China over a period of 9 months (involving 98 shipments of approximately 250,000 pieces of finished products). The results showed that product attributes such as size, complexity (and hence allocation of manpower and production time), pricing and order types (e.g. new vs. repeat orders, urgency of order, etc.) could affect various standard KPIs like defect rates, yield losses, productivity, worker efficiency, etc.
  PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION   A historical review of administrative thoughts from a cultural perspective
R Cheng & I Macapagal (2016)
International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, Volume 11 (December), Issue 3, pp.19-26

Administrative thought is always in a state of continuous change, evolution and adaptation as it has to 'grow' to 'catch up' with the society together with its ever-changing challenges. Dwight Waldo, the prominent American academic figure in public administration, argued in 1947 that the then current administrative theories and thoughts actually grew and evolved since the industrial revolution from the nineteenth-century (McCurdy & Rosenbloom, 2006, p.207). As the society developed from one that was generally moral-based which depended heavily on farming, that is, an agrarian society, to an industrialized nation, productivity of human beings were reorganized and a wide range of resources was redistributed on such an enormous scale never seen before and therefore corresponding updates and changes of organizational bureaucracy in the management of people and production was therefore required. But did these really contributed solely to the evolution of administrative thoughts? This review paper aims to provide an alternative historical review of the core administrative thoughts since the time of Woodrow Wilson to the heterodoxy (circa 1970) of public administration from the feminine and the media cultural perspective – perspectives that most literature review on the subject seems to have ignored.
  VOTING BEHAVIOR   Voters versus the corpus of fictional President of the United States
R Cheng (2015)
Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (JSSH), Volume 23, July 2015 (Special Issue), pp.85-112, Universiti Putra Malaysia Press
Voting behaviour changes over time and voters today are no longer loyal to traditional 'political brands'. This paper, hence, try to explore, through constructing 'action corpora' using novels, movies and TV dramas from the last 50 years (1960-2012) relating to fictional US presidents to see what the mass media have been conveying to the public subconsciously over time. How did the powerful media bias right before elections could have caused vote swings?
  ENVIRONMENT & SOCIETY   Too much water or too few drops?
R Cheng & M Ma (2015)
Proceedings of the 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Sustainable Energy and Environmental Technologies (APCSEET), July 2-5, 2015, University of Seoul, Republic of Korea
This paper studied and recorded the actual implementation of the Hong Kong Tuen Mun Highway Green Roof Project in which some 14,000 square meters of greenroof was installed along the Tuen Mun Highway in Hong Kong. The project was the largest green roof project in Asia (as of 2013) and its respective water consumption, temperatures recorded above and beneath the greenroof was monitored for a period of 36 consecutive months and its effectiveness was discussed.
  LANGUAGE & BUSINESS   Business pragmatics: Why are we being polite?
R Cheng (2015)
International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, Volume 6 (April), Issue 2, pp.27-32

Politeness in business has become more of a forced phenomenon of mutual concession, a pragmatic means to an end, or even a new form of reciprocal comity resulting from the inevitable mutual co-existence and quests for sustainability of nations, let alone international trade and relations. But when did politeness escape from the self and evolved to become a business phenomenon?
  NUTRITION   Caffeine in pre-packaged tea leaves: A food labelling concern
C Wong, R Cheng & H Man (2014)
Journal of Hong Kong Institute of Medical Laboratory Sciences (HKIMLS) 2013-2014, Volume 14, Issue 1 & 2, pp.59-70
This paper aims to determine the caffeine content of prepackaged brands of tea leaves available in the market via the HPLC-PDA method. Prepackaged tea leaves including white, black, oolong, green and pu-erh were examined. Using the Agilent TC-C18 column, caffeine contents in the tea leaves were studied via reversed-phase HPLC with a wavelength setting of 280 nm. Samples were isocratically eluted with a mobile phase consisting of 1% acetic acid and acetonitrile in the ratio of 8:2 with a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. Extraction of caffeine in boiling water was performed to mimic the real-life situation of tea drinking. Results showed that the caffeine content we found ranged from 13mg/g (or 13,000ppm) to 38mg/g (or 38,000ppm), way beyond the 200ppm US FDA regulatory standard.

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