Established in June 1992 and spun off in mid-2003 as an independent research operation, Wyith Institute provides policy analysis, business intelligence and applications design, knowledge discovery and its related management, as well as various training services.

Research at Wyith is interdisciplinary in nature. We focus particularly on the creative extraction of information from raw data and derive from it useful intelligence for the benefit of humanity.


TCM Objects Database

Review our work since 1995 on the classification of the theories and use of traditional chinese medicines. Visit tcmbasics.com

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Support Quality Issues

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Socio-Economics

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Recent developments:

Dr Raymond Cheng meets with CLSU-OU Dean, Dr Ponciano Cuaresma, at the Office of Dr Raymond Cheng
Hong Kong (July 28, 2017) – The Dean of the Open University at Central Luzon State University (CLSU), Dr Ponciano Cuaresma, visited Hong Kong and met with Dr Raymond Cheng of Wyith Institute. Together they discussed the details of the two organizations in offering CLSU-OU's flagship graduate level degree programs in renewal energy systems and environmental management in the coming Fall semester of 2017.

Founded in 1907, CLSU sits on a huge 658-hectare campus in the Muñoz (also known as the Science City of Muñoz), Nueva Ecija, Philippines, and has a student population of over 10,000. The university is the lead agency of the nation's science community, is the regional research and development hub of Central Luzon, and is constantly ranked as one of the top 10 universities in the Philippines by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). For details, please see www.clsu.edu.ph

Hong Kong (March 24, 2017) – Dr Raymond Cheng was invited as the Guest Speaker to deliver a talk on Individuals and Society at the Caritas Institute of Higher Education in Tseun Kwan O. The topic revolved around "Perspectives: Culture and Time". Participants were undergraduate students taking up business degrees and they found the talk extremely mind-blowing and exciting, and the concepts were very useful to the business world. The talk was extremely well received.

Caritas Institute of Higher Education (CIHE) is a degree-granting institution offering programmes from QF levels 5 thru 7. Formerly known as the Caritas Francis Hsu College, the Institute was founded on both professional and altruistic principles with a mission to produce responsible and respectable graduates who are academically and professionally well-educated and can fulfill the role of making contributions to the social and moral well-being of the community. The Institute is currently working its way toward becoming the first Catholic university, St Francis University. For further details, please visit www.cihe.edu.hk

Dr Raymond Cheng with Caritas students

Dr Raymond Cheng at ICREMSS 2016, Subic Bay
Subic, Philippines (December 21, 2016) – Dr Raymond Cheng was invited as the Keynote Speaker for ICREMSS 2016, the 2nd International Conference in Research, Education, Management and the Social Sciences, organized by Asian Intellect and endorsed by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) of the Philippines. Nearly 200 academians from all over the Philippines attended the conference and the topics revolved around the concept of global and local culture as well as a number of research ideas from a variety of perspectives. Dr Cheng also presented certificates to paper presenters during the conference.
Dr Raymond Cheng as Keynote Speaker for
					academic conference in Subic Bay, The Philippines 2016

Dr Raymond Cheng receives Honorary Doctorate
					of Humanities from Southwest State University, Russia 2016
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (October 22, 2016) – On the evening of October 22, 2016, Dr Raymond Cheng was awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Humanities during the Southwest State University (SWSU) Graduation Ceremony 2016 held for its Asian graduates at the National Visual Arts Gallery, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Dr Cheng was nominated and selected to receive the honor for his professional achievements and contributions over the years to the advancement of business and information research. The Director for International Relations, Dr. Dmitry Titov, on behalf of SWSU, presented the honorary degree to Dr Raymond Cheng.

Established in 1964 and formerly known as the Kursk State Technical University, SWSU is a leading Russian university located in Kursk, Russia, with 8 faculties and a student population of over 12,000, among which more than 550 of them are international students coming from some 87 countries. For details, see www.swsu.ru

Dr Raymond Cheng with the CLSU College of Business Administration
					and Accountancy (CBAA) faculty members
Dr Raymond Cheng with faculty and students at
					Central Luzon State University (CLSU)
Dr Raymond Cheng conducting the Business Glocalization seminar
					at CLSU 2016
Dr Raymond Cheng giving a talk to graduate level studentsMuñoz, Philippines (October 1, 2016) – Invited by the College of Business Administration and Accountancy (CBAA) of the Central Luzon State University (CLSU), The Philippines, Dr Raymond Cheng conducted a 2-day Business Glocalization seminar for about 2,000 undergraduate and graduate students at the University's Auditorium.

Founded in 1907, CLSU sits on a huge 658-hectare campus in the Muñoz (also known as the Science City of Muñoz), Nueva Ecija, Philippines, and has a student population of over 10,000. The university is the lead agency of the nation's science community, is the regional research and development hub of Central Luzon, and is constantly ranked as one of the top 10 universities in the Philippines by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). For further details, please visit www.clsu.edu.ph

Dr Raymond Cheng with DBA graduates,
					Dr Dacon Dai and Dr Ares Cheng and the Honorarble Regina Ip, Member
					of the Hong Kong Legiclative Council
Hong Kong (July 24, 2016) – The University of Management and Technology (UMT) held its 2016 Graduation Ceremony (Hong Kong) at the Chiang Chen Studio Theatre, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Two doctoral graduates, Dr Ares Cheng (top photo, first from right) and Dr Dacon Dai (bottom photo, second from left), both supervised by Dr Raymond Cheng, were among the three DBA graduates this year to receive their doctorate in business administration (along with other 100+ UMT graduates). Dr Ares Cheng's research was related to consumer behavior in the local intimate apparel industry whereas Dr Dacon Dai's study was on the employability of graduates at private higher education institutions.

Established in Virginia in 1998. UMT is chartered by the State Council of Higher Education of Virginia (SCHEV). For details, see www.umtweb.edu

Dr Raymond Cheng and the delegation
					visits Shenyang and Fushun 2016 Liaoning, China (May 30, 2016) – Accompanied by the Fushun City Secretary-General, Dr Raymond Cheng led a 5-member delegation and paid a visit to two partner institutions of higher education in Shenyang and Fushun, namely, the privately-owned Shenyang Institute of Technology (SYIT) as well as the state-run Fushun Vocational Technology Institute (FVTI) and its affiliated Fushun TV University. The three parties agreed to research into collaborations in co-offering educational programs in the region.

Delegation led by Dr Raymond Cheng invited by Chinese
					officials to visit Fushun and Shenyang 2016
Fushun, China (May 28, 2016) – A delegation led by Dr Raymond Cheng (2nd from right) visited Fushun City in the Province of Liaoning from May 28 to May 29, 2016. The delegation was warmly welcomed by the city's Chinese People's Political Consultative Committee (CPPCC) Chairman, Zhang Min (middle), and Vice-Chairman, Huang Zhen-dong (first from left). The CPPCC officials invited the delegation to visit the city's landmark, Leifeng Memorial Hall, and toured its UNESCO World Heritage, Qing Yongling (i.e. Imperial Tombs of the Qing Dynasty) in the Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County. The delegation also took the opportunity to bestow upon the CPPCC Chairman the title of Honorary Professor of the Open University of Central Luzon State University, Philippines.

Wyith Community and Dr Raymond Cheng support the Belt-and-Road Initiative
Wyith Community Logo
Dr Raymond Cheng elected Chairman of Wyith Community 2016
One Belt, One Road

Hong Kong (March 31, 2016) – The Wyith Community, an associated not-for-profit society founded by members of the Wyith Institute and chaired by Dr Raymond Cheng, successfully completed its registration with the Hong Kong Police today in accordance with the provisions of Section 5A(1) of the Societies Ordinance – Chapter 151 of the Laws of Hong Kong. The aims of Wyith Community is to foster the growth and exchange of knowledge and its development through supporting the Belt-and-Road Initiative which covers more than 60 countries (or some 63% of the world's population; or 30% of the world's GDP in total) along the ancient Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silkroad, see illustration above (graphic by Raffy de Guzman, Rappler.com). Wyith Community envisions very active future collaborations with universities and tertiary institutions situated along the Belt-and-Road economic regions.

Dr Raymond Cheng meets with Professor Dr Mak Chai
					and Dr Sheila Cheng from Asia e University, Malaysia Hong Kong (March 29, 2016) – Professor Dr Mak Chai, AeU Vice President (second from left in photo) and Associate Professor Dr Sheila Cheng (second from right) of Asia e University, Malaysia, visited Hong Kong and met with Dr Raymond Cheng, CEO of Wyith Institute. Together, the parties reiterated their common goal to provide the best support for the University's doctoral students studying in the region. There are currently five research students working on their PhDs, all in business administration, and the first one is expected to graduate in 2018.

Supported by 34 Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) member countries as affirmed at the ACD Ministerial Meetings held in Islamabad in 2005 and Doha in 2006, AeU is a collaborative multinational university established in 2006 aiming to become the prime mover of e-Education. For further details about the University, please visit www.aeu.edu.my

Dr Raymond Cheng meets with BSU Director for International Relations, Jeremy White
Hong Kong (March 2, 2016) – Dr Raymond Cheng met today with Mr Jeremy White, Director for International Relations of Bath Spa University, UK. As program director for the BSU BA(Hons) in business and management program in Hong Kong, Dr Cheng reported the latest developments as well as the transitional arrangments for all the BSU students taking their BA degrees in Hong Kong. Mr White was satisfied with the arrangments as well as the progress of the students and together they pledged to offer the best support to the BSU students in Hong Kong.

Bath Spa University (BSU) is the UK's sixth biggest provider of teacher education. With a student population of around 8,000, BSU has been consistently ranked as one of the best creative universities in the UK since 2012, and reularly placed among the UK's top 80 universities. For further details about the University, please visit www.bathspa.ac.uk

Dr Raymond Cheng meets with Kapil Rampal from Ivory Education, India Hong Kong (February 28, 2016) – Dr Raymond Cheng met with Mr Kapil Rampal, Founder of Ivory Education, arriving from India. Together, the two exchanged views and ideas on transnational education and agreed to seek opportunities to collaborate and offer programs in Hong Kong, Mainland China or in India.

Ivory Education is a venture established by individuals who have vast experience in the field of education, especially technology based education. Ivory Education currently carries postgraduate programs for top Indian schools, including Indian Institute of Management (IIM) in Calcutta, Mudra Institute of Communications in Ahmedabad (MICA), as well as Steinbeis Global Institute Tübingen in Germany. For further details about Ivory Education, see www.ivoryeducation.com

Dr Raymond Cheng featured in The Linguist 2016
London, UK (February 20, 2016) – As a media analyst as well as a Chartered Linguist (MCIL CL) registered with the Chartered Institute of Linguists (CIOL, UK), Dr Raymond Cheng was featured in the Institute's February 2016 issue of The Linguist, 55(1), p.30. Dr Cheng shared his vision in higher education through using the media and divulged his plans to offer affordable education to the public.

The Chartered Institute of Linguists (CIOL) is the pre-eminent UK-based professional membership body for language practitioners. It aims to enhance the recognition and promote the value of languages and language skills in the public interest. Founded in 1910, CIOL has almost 6,000 members. For further details, please see www.ciol.org.uk

Dr Raymond Cheng appointed
					Bath Spa University Program Director (Hong Kong) 2016
Bath, UK (February 1, 2016) – Bath Spa University (Bath, UK) has just appointed Dr Raymond Cheng, CEO of Wyith Institute, to be the university's Program Director for its Hong Kong program with immediate effect. The university has been offering its BA(Hons) in business and management program to students in Hong Kong since 2014 and is expecting its first batch of graduates in late 2017.

Bath Spa University (BSU) is the UK's sixth biggest provider of teacher education. With a student population of around 8,000, BSU has been consistently ranked as one of the best creative universities in the UK since 2012, and reularly placed among the UK's top 80 universities. For further details, please see www.bathspa.ac.uk

Hong Kong (November 12, 2015) – As a continuation of the Hong Kong Fashion Week 2015, Dr Raymond Cheng conducted another seminar at the Hong Kong Productivity Council Building in Kowloon Tong. The seminar covered topics related to the packaging, pricing, and how to deal with customer satisfaction in the shoe manufacturing business through strategic marketing and understanding national cultural differences.
Dr Raymond Cheng giving seminar
					at Hong Kong Productivity Council, Project Shoe Fountain 2016

Dr Raymond Cheng featured in Bath Spa newsletter in Hong Kong 2015
Hong Kong (August 5, 2015) – Bath Spa University (Bath, UK) launched for the first time its BA(Hons) in business and management (Hong Kong) program in 2014 (Non-local Higher and Professional Education, registration number 252378) and Dr Raymond Cheng joined the teaching team the same year. He was featured, in August 2015, as one of the most popular professors among the Hong Kong teaching team.

Bath Spa University (BSU) is a public university with multiple campuses in Bath, England. The institution was previously known as Bath College of Higher Education, and later Bath Spa University College. It gained full university status in August 2005 and is the UK's sixth biggest provider of teacher education. With a student population of around 8,000, BSU has been consistently ranked as one of the best creative universities in the UK since 2012, and regularly placed among the UK's top 80 universities. For details, please see www.bathspa.ac.uk

Dr Raymond Cheng with DBA graduates,
					Dr Lam Bard-lord and Dr Samuel Lee
Hong Kong (July 26, 2015) – The University of Management and Technology (UMT) held its 2015 Graduation Ceremony (Hong Kong) at the Chiang Chen Studio Theatre, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Two doctoral graduates, Dr Lam Bard-lord (top photo, middle) and Dr Samuel Lee from Singapore (bottom picture, second from right), were among the four DBA graduates this year to receive their doctorate in business administration (along with other 150+ UMT graduates). Supervised by Dr Raymond Cheng, Dr Lam's research investigated the Bible cover design and studied the corresponding personal preferences of the Hong Kong Christian market and its implications whereas Dr Lee studied the criteria and choices of university graduates selecting their business master's degrees in Singapore.

Established in Virginia in 1998. UMT is chartered by the State Council of Higher Education of Virginia (SCHEV). For details, see www.umtweb.edu

Hong Kong (July 9, 2015) – Dr Raymond Cheng is appointed Visiting Professor of Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology (NEUST) in Cabanatuan with immediate effect. He receives his appointment letter from the NEUST President, Dr Hilario Ortiz, during the NEUST graduation ceremony held for students in Hong Kong.

Established in 1908, NEUST is one of the largest state universities in Central Luzon with 6 campuses plus 7 off-campus programs in the region and a total enrollment of over 22,000. For further details, please visit www.neust.edu.ph

Dr Raymond Cheng named NEUST Visiting Professor 2015

Dr Raymond Cheng giving seminar
					at Hong Kong Fashion Week 2015, Hong Kong Conference and Exhibition Centre
Hong Kong (July 8, 2015) – Dr Raymond Cheng, the CEO of Wyith Institute, was invited to be the Guest Speaker for the Hong Kong Fashion Week 2015 Seminar Series jointly organized by the Hong Kong Productivity Council (HKPC) and the Hong Kong Trade Development Council (HKTDC). His talk revolved around his research on using cultural marketing techniques to fine tune marketing strategies and help identify and hence match with the right customer segments for local shoe manufacturers maintaining outlets in Mainland China. His seminar was extremely welcomed by the participants who were all experienced industry practitioners.

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (December 4, 2014) – Invited by the Asia e University (AeU) in Kuala Lumpur to become a Reader for its Industrial Doctorate (IndD) programme, Dr Raymond Cheng visited AeU and met with its officials. He also attended the defense of Dr TK Tan, AeU's first graduate of the IndD programme.

Supported by 34 Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) member countries as affirmed at the ACD Ministerial Meetings held in Islamabad in 2005 and Doha in 2006, AeU is a collaborative multinational university established in 2006 aiming to become the prime mover of online education. For details, please see www.aeu.edu.my

Dr Raymond Cheng
					visits Asia e University (AeU) 2014

Dr Raymond Cheng giving ASEAN seminar at NEUST 2014
Dr Raymond Cheng with graduate students at NEUST 2014 Cabanatuan, Philippines (November 23, 2014) – Dr Raymond Cheng was invited to be the Resource Speaker to give a two-day seminar on ASEAN integration at the Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology (NEUST) at Cabanatuan, Philippines. The seminar, held at the 700-seat NEUST Amphitheatre, brought new perspectives for participants in terms of how the Philippines should face the upcoming ASEAN integration as well as the challenges of globalization and glocalization ahead. Both the NEUST faculty members and students, graduate and undergraduate, were deeply fascinated by the seminar.

Established in 1908, NEUST is located in Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija, and is one of the largest state universities in in Central Luzon, the Philippines. It has 6 campuses and 7 off-campus programs scattered around the province with a total enrollment of over 22,000. The university has just recently celebrated its centennial year in 2008. For details, please visit www.neust.edu.ph

Dr Raymond Cheng attends John Yu's doctoral defense 2013
Hong Kong (November 14, 2013) – Dr Raymond Cheng, as dissertation supervisor, attended Dr John Yu's (first from left in photo) doctoral defense for his DBA degree at the University of Management and Techbology (UMT), Virginia. Dr John Yu successfully defended his doctoral dissertation in which he investigated the way of practices, project completion rates, and various other issues as related to the demographics of professional project managers in the context of Hong Kong banking and insurance industries.

Established in Virginia in 1998. UMT is chartered by the State Council of Higher Education of Virginia (SCHEV). For details, see www.umtweb.edu

Dr Raymond Cheng elected
					Fellow of British Computer Society (FBCS) Swindon, UK (August 30, 2013) – Following the recent FRSA award (in July 2013) in recognition for the continuous work in the betterment of the human society through information technology, Dr Raymond Cheng has just received another recognition in the computing and information technology profession – he is elected Fellow (FBCS) of the British Computer Society, the highest member grade the society bestows and is considered a great honor to computer scientists and information technology professionals worldwide.

Dr Cheng joined the British Computer Society as a full member in 2004 and is also a full member with the Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (USA) since 1992. Over the years, Dr Cheng has received awards from major I.T. enablers like Network Solutions (Nasdaq:NSOL) – the company behind the world's 10 million Web addresses in the late 1990s; Melbourne IT (ASX:MLB) – the major I.T. business in Australia operated by the University of Melbourne; and letters of commendation from listed conglomerates like the Hutchison Whampoa group (HKSE:0013) in Hong Kong, as well as appreciation from NGOs like The Salvation Army, among many others. He has also been proudly featured on CNN BizAsia. The Fellowship of the BCS is not only a benchmark of information technology excellence but also reflects the recipients' significant professional contributions to the field of computing.

Dr Raymond Cheng on CNN Financial News and Internet Asia

Established in 1957, the British Computer Society is a professional body and a learned society that represents its 71,000+ members working in information technology both in the United Kingdom and internationally. According to the BCS, only less than 5% of its 71,000+ members worldwide are awarded and elevated to this prestigious grade of membership. For details, see www.bcs.org.uk

Dr Raymond Cheng awarded RSA Fellowship 2013
Dr Raymond Cheng awarded RSA Fellowship 2013 London, UK (July 23, 2013) – Dr Raymond Cheng has recently been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, The RSA, in recognition for his continuous work in the betterment of the human society through information technology.

"I am so grateful and thankful to the RSA as the award of the fellowship acknowledged not only my work over the last 20 years but also signified approval of some kind, particularly from like-minded peers from all over the world," Dr Cheng commented. "I knew long ago that I am not alone and there are a lot of people out there doing even much bigger things with far greater ideas, so being officially accepted to become part of such a huge network of these great and visionary people definitely feels honored and privileged."

"Since 1997, I have been a convener or on boards of directors for various voluntary projects (including different types of information technology-related work for the local Salvation Army, the Rotary Club, publicly-funded museums and exhibition halls for visual and installation arts, as well as projects for other religious bodies and NGOs), all aiming at the betterment of the human society through the use of information technology. As a believer of the power of free and collaborative information, I see that a better future can be built through the free and transparent flow of information coupled with the collective wisdom of everyone on this planet. Just as I often say, the 'I' alone simply doesn't help much if we do not come and work together. Now, as a new fellow of the RSA, I can foresee that I would not only meet people with similar ambition, but could also contribute my part to help form a larger 'we' while learning from other fellows to widen my perspectives upon the world," he added.

Founded in 1754, The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce is often simply referred to as The Royal Society of Arts for the sake of brevity, and its members as Fellows of the RSA (FRSA). For details, please see www.rsa.org.uk

Dr Raymond Cheng attends Billy Chu's doctoral defense 2013
Hong Kong (July 19, 2013) – Designated as Dissertation Supervisor, Dr Raymond Cheng attended Billy Chu's (see photo: second from left) doctoral defense for his DBA degree at the University of Management and Techbology (UMT). Dr Billy Chu successfully passed his doctoral defense with distinction. His research was a case study of financial firms in Hong Kong in which he looked into the relationships between corporate events and employees motivation.

Established in Virginia in 1998. UMT is chartered by the State Council of Higher Education of Virginia (SCHEV). For details, see www.umtweb.edu


Dr Raymond Cheng conducting a seminar on Business Glocalization
			at Central Luzon State University 2016

Above: Dr Raymond Cheng with approximately 2,000 undergraduate business students participating in his seminar at Central Luzon State University, Muñoz, Philippines, September 30, 2016.

Celebrating the 20th Anniversary of the HKSAR


Known as the Pearl of the Orient, the city of Hong Kong is situated at the crossroad between East and West. And hence, to celebrate its 20th anniversary of establishment as the HKSAR under the People's Republic of China, Wyith Institute is launching a series of multicultural performances and variety shows manifesting the intercultural bridge of the modern metropolis under the Belt-and-Road Initiative. Bringing together nearly 30 years of experience, ranging from backstage operations, TV series, silverscreen cinema to music production, our professional staff will be directing, with a distinct flavour and character, Wyith's stage operations projects, starting September 2017, at several different government theatres. Please stay tuned for our upcoming announcements! For other celebration, see www.hksar20.gov.hk

Recent and upcoming publications:

  MARKETS & CONSUMER BEHAVIOR  
The Holy Bible as a product: Consumer segments based on preferences toward the Bible cover

R Cheng & BL Lam (2017)
Proceedings of 12th Asian Academy of Management International Conference 2017 (AAMC 2017), Universiti Sains Malaysia (accepted, forthcoming)
The objective of this paper is to study the customer segments of keepers (and potential keepers) of the Holy Bible among believers of Jesus Christ in Hong Kong with respect to their preferences of the cover of the Bible. The results provided suggestions to marketers (specifically publishers) doing business of faith in the commercial age as well as implications of such in the renewal of faith as it gradually fades among the younger generations. Involving a total of 182 respondents (80 male, 102 female) through the assistance of five local Christian churches in Hong Kong, the findings indicated that there were significant differences of perception and understanding toward the Bible among segments as a result of their preferences toward its cover. This extended support to various other literature related to how religion and religiosity, as well as various cultural and subcultural influences, played significant roles in affecting consumer behavior and the corresponding perception across a wide range of commercial products. The study also contributes to the literature by incorporating the concept that sustainable production of traditional long-time products like the Holy Bible could be revived by carefully studying the products' changing customer segments.
  MARKETS & CONSUMER BEHAVIOR   Country-of-origin, brand image, and brand loyalty of branded drugs in Ho Chi Ming City, Vietnam
R Cheng, LT Hong-Loan & LH Nguyen (2017)
Southeast Asia Journal of Contemporary Business, Economics and Law (accepted, in print)

While there has been numerous previous empirical studies investigating into a product's country-of-origin (COO) and its relationship with various factors, including but not limited to brand loyalty, brand awareness and perceived quality, etc., the findings were often inconsistent (Kaynak & Kara, 2000). This is especially true when it comes to the pharmaceutical industry in which the importance of COO seems to depend on the type medicine studied and its use in addition to the usual factors for other non-medicine products (say, perceived quality, product evaluations other than quality, affect, and purchase intentions). This paper aims to look at the pharmaceutical market of Vietnam by studying the people's brand awareness, brand loyalty, perceived quality and preferences toward COO of branded drugs available in the Ho Chi Ming City. Results show that Vietnamese, unlike Americans (as in Quelch's (1997) Aspirin experiment), tend to be biased by COO more than by brands, implying a very different market than some of its Asian neighbors.
  ENVIRONMENT & SOCIETY   Water saving versus public opinion
R Cheng, FCK Wong & M Ma (2017)
Journal of Built Environment, Technology and Engineering (accepted, in print)

This paper utilized the data recorded from the Hong Kong Tuen Mun Highway Green Roof Project (covering some 14,000 square meters – the largest green roof project in Asia completed in 2013, see above photo from contractor) in which driplines were installed (with solar wireless automatic irrigation system) and the respective water consumption was monitored for a period of 29 consecutive months. In order to understand the actual public response of the project, the paper combined corpus linguistics methods with engineering techniques to help us understand the difference between the response (in terms of public acceptance) from the perspective of corporate citizenship and the engineering facts (in terms of the actual water saving) from the angle of the pragmatic green-city conservationist.
  INFRASTRUCTURE   Infrastructure asset management review of tall residential buildings of major cities: Chicago, Hong Kong, and Singapore
R Cheng & I Ng (2017)
Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Infrastructure Asset Management (INFRAASSET3), October 30-31, 2017, Kuala Lumpur (accepted, in print)

There is only one residential skyscraper within Chinaˇ¦s top 100 tallest buildings in the crowded 24-million-population city of Shanghai, China (and eleven residential skyscrapers among the 134 tallest buildings, i.e. those taller than 150 metres), whereas there are comparatively a lot more skyscrapers used for residential purposes in equally densely populated cities like Hong Kong, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and, of course, Chicago and New York. This paper, hence, looked, from a historical perspective, how the development of tall buildings in Chicago, Hong Kong and Singapore have evolved to become what we see today. How does the tall building development history of a city help forge the peopleˇ¦s view in terms of living in skyscrapers? Would such help provide explanations and hints as to the future development of skyscrapers in the other cities like Shanghai?
  CRIMINAL JUSTICE   A second perspective on the sustained anti-corruption strategy in Hong Kong
R Cheng (2017)
Journal of Education and Social Sciences (accepted, in print)
Over the years, Hong Kong has built up a clean culture and is recognized as one of the role models for fighting corruption. Syndicated and petty corruption in the public sector has become a thing of the past and irregularities in the private sector have been reduced substantially (Li, 2001). There has been radical change in the culture too, "from tolerance of corruption to clear rejection" (Chui, 2000). In fact, some of the main reasons for Hong Kong's success include (a) the creation of the unimpeachable anti-corruption agency in 1974, the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) which was established with a well-planned long-term strategy that uses a three-pronged attack on corruption via investigation, prevention and education; (b) the attention to all corruption reports; and (c) the ability to maintain confidentiality (de Speville, 1999). In addition, though compelled by public criticism, the recognition of corruption as a real problem by the then British colonial government in Hong Kong and its subsequent commitment to solving it also constituted a major factor of success (Quah, 2004). This "commitment", however, is not just one single policy or legislation, but is a whole range of various complicated administrative policies, legal initiatives, and financial tactics applied consistently and strategically over a long period of time hence effectively creating an environment "suitable for fighting corruption." In this paper, we shall review from a new strategic viewpoint the "passive commitments" of the Hong Kong colonial government in terms of (a) the local economic and social statistics for a 25-year period spanning 1967 thru 1992 and (b) the behavioral patterns and theories of people. We shall also relate the above to see how these had possibly and indirectly contributed to make corruption a low gain and high risk crime and how these had fostered the effectiveness of the corresponding legislations and helped the work of the local anti-corruption agency. Last but not the least, the paper also made recommendations for the future enhancement for the current Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (HKSARG) in its ever on-going combat against corruption by means of using the findings.
  QUALITY RESEARCH TRENDS   Quality research and cultural trends: Is there a cultural pattern that favors service quality research?
R Cheng & C Wong (2017)
International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, Volume 12 (April), Issue 3, pp.1-10

Witell, Lofgren and Dahlgaard (2013) summarized and described the time periods for quality-related researches into three noticeable phases of development, namely, Emergence (1984-1999), Exploration (2000-2008), and Explosion (2009-2012). Such a finding aligns logically with the world cultural values taken from the Inglehart-Welzel cultural map from 1981 to 2015 during which various regions of the world, in general, were all moving away from survival values and have become more self-expressive as the world economy transformed itself from industrial to post-industrial economy (Kenney, 2010, p.215). In fact, more and more researches published during the 'Explosion' period (2009-2012) were geared toward researching into intangible services – which were found to be essential in the modern, post-industrial economics system (Andrii, 2015). This paper, hence, attempted to look at such a trend to see if there are any differences between countries that are 'strong in service quality research' (or 'SERVQUAL' research) and those that are not through determining the differences between the Pearson's correlation coefficients of Hofstede's cultural dimension values (1994; 1997; 2001; 2010) for the list of top 10 countries producing the highest number of service quality related researches as per the research of Wang et al. (2015) and that of all the 70 countries studied by Hofstede. The study revealed that differences in cultural dimensions do exist and that being strong in SERVQUAL research does not necessarily mean having weak (large power distance) or dependent (collectivistic) customers.
  LEADERSHIP & SOCIAL MEDIA   Social networks and the evolution of leadership theories in the technical environment
R Cheng & W Tang (2017)
Southeast Asia Journal of Contemporary Business, Economics and Law, Volume 12 (April), Issue 3 (Economics), pp.9-17

Historically, major over-investment bubbles and their subsequent crashes often bring about profound socioeconomic changes. Leadership style also evolved so as to adopt to such change, from the Great Man Theory (Dobbins & Platz, 1986) to Leader-member Relations (LMX)(Duchon, Green & Taber, 1986). Peer-to-peer technology further expanded the scalability of the already rapidly growing computer networks (Nguyen, 2008) and fostered the adaptation of team work in the technical environment. This paper attempts to look at the evolution of social networks from the early 1980s to the present day along with the evolution of leadership theories over the last 20 years. It is found that there are striking similarities between leadership theories in the technical environment and the advancement of social networks.
  LANGUAGE & SOCIETY   Journal paper review: "A corpus driven study of the potential for vocabulary learning through watching movies" - From incidental vocabulary learning to social development
R Cheng, R Reyes-Moralde & I Ng (2017)
Journal of Education and Social Sciences, Volume 6 (February), Issue 2, pp.251-262

This review paper attempts to justify and investigate from a different perspective the postulate that there is potential for significant incidental vocabulary learning by watching movies regularly over time. Our paper revealed that such a valuable and incidental learning experience could in fact be slowly fading as our forthcoming generations may no longer appreciate or become unaware of the very moments of those ad hoc, instant and intuitive learning experiences that were once known to the many past generations as incidental and natural as the newer generation's attention span shortens. Those who would, on the contrary, generally come from less developed or developing countries where contact with the English-speaking world is relatively limited.
  FREEDOM OF SPEECH   What does the Inglehart-Welzel cultural map tell us about the freedom of Hong Kong?
R Cheng, AH Yau & S Ho (2016)
Southeast Asia Journal of Contemporary Business, Economics and Law, Volume 11 (December), Issue 3 (Economics), pp.8-15
Hong Kong's press freedom score has been declining over the last 10 years, from #28 in 2005 to some #41 in 2015. Some attributed this to the 'rapidly narrowing' space for free speech since the city was returned to China in 1997. By qualitatively looking at previous landmark court cases and high profile rulings related to areas like the freedom of assembly, freedom of expression, and the right of abode, this review paper attempts to find out if the Inglehart-Welzel cultural values (recorded over the last 20 years) could help explain the current situation in Hong Kong and what insights, via this new perspective, could possibly be derived.
  PRODUCTION QUALITY   How product attributes affect KPI: A case study of a 500-worker metal stamping factory in People's Republic of China
R Cheng & P Li (2016)
International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, Volume 11 (December), Issue 2, pp.16-25
Decoene and Bruggeman (2006) suggested the use of balanced scorecard to help align business strategy with managers' motivation in measuring performance yet such an idea could only work for large enterprises because 'substantial barriers to strategic performance management' do exist for SMEs (Hudson, Smart, & Bourne, 2001) and that 'actionable knowledge' could be hard to acquire when performance for SMEs in itself can already be difficult to measure (Meyer, 2005). This paper, hence, proposed measuring a list of standardized and easy-to-measure KPIs as well as some simple attributes of the products to see if there is any relationship between them. Data were recorded from a relatively small-scale, traditional 500-worker metal stamping factory in China over a period of 9 months (involving 98 shipments of approximately 250,000 pieces of finished products). The results showed that product attributes such as size, complexity (and hence allocation of manpower and production time), pricing and order types (e.g. new vs. repeat orders, urgency of order, etc.) could affect various standard KPIs like defect rates, yield losses, productivity, worker efficiency, etc.
  PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION   A historical review of administrative thoughts from a cultural perspective
R Cheng & I Macapagal (2016)
International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, Volume 11 (December), Issue 3, pp.19-26

Administrative thought is always in a state of continuous change, evolution and adaptation as it has to 'grow' to 'catch up' with the society together with its ever-changing challenges. Dwight Waldo, the prominent American academic figure in public administration, argued in 1947 that the then current administrative theories and thoughts actually grew and evolved since the industrial revolution from the nineteenth-century (McCurdy & Rosenbloom, 2006, p.207). As the society developed from one that was generally moral-based which depended heavily on farming, that is, an agrarian society, to an industrialized nation, productivity of human beings were reorganized and a wide range of resources was redistributed on such an enormous scale never seen before and therefore corresponding updates and changes of organizational bureaucracy in the management of people and production was therefore required. But did these really contributed solely to the evolution of administrative thoughts? This review paper aims to provide an alternative historical review of the core administrative thoughts since the time of Woodrow Wilson to the heterodoxy (circa 1970) of public administration from the feminine and the media cultural perspective – perspectives that most literature review on the subject seems to have ignored.
  VOTING BEHAVIOR   Voters versus the corpus of fictional President of the United States
R Cheng (2015)
Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (JSSH), Volume 23, July 2015 (Special Issue), pp.85-112, Universiti Putra Malaysia Press
Voting behaviour changes over time and voters today are no longer loyal to traditional 'political brands'. This paper, hence, try to explore, through constructing 'action corpora' using novels, movies and TV dramas from the last 50 years (1960-2012) relating to fictional US presidents to see what the mass media have been conveying to the public subconsciously over time. How did the powerful media bias right before elections could have caused vote swings?
  ENVIRONMENT & SOCIETY   Too much water or too few drops?
R Cheng & M Ma (2015)
Proceedings of the 10th Asia Pacific Conference on Sustainable Energy and Environmental Technologies (APCSEET), July 2-5, 2015, University of Seoul, Republic of Korea
This paper studied and recorded the actual implementation of the Hong Kong Tuen Mun Highway Green Roof Project in which some 14,000 square meters of greenroof was installed along the Tuen Mun Highway in Hong Kong. The project was the largest green roof project in Asia (as of 2013) and its respective water consumption, temperatures recorded above and beneath the greenroof was monitored for a period of 36 consecutive months and its effectiveness was discussed.
  LANGUAGE & BUSINESS   Business pragmatics: Why are we being polite?
R Cheng (2015)
International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, Volume 6 (April), Issue 2, pp.27-32

Politeness in business has become more of a forced phenomenon of mutual concession, a pragmatic means to an end, or even a new form of reciprocal comity resulting from the inevitable mutual co-existence and quests for sustainability of nations, let alone international trade and relations. But when did politeness escape from the self and evolved to become a business phenomenon?
  NUTRITION   Caffeine in pre-packaged tea leaves: A food labelling concern
C Wong, R Cheng & H Man (2014)
Journal of Hong Kong Institute of Medical Laboratory Sciences (HKIMLS) 2013-2014, Volume 14, Issue 1 & 2, pp.59-70
This paper aims to determine the caffeine content of prepackaged brands of tea leaves available in the market via the HPLC-PDA method. Prepackaged tea leaves including white, black, oolong, green and pu-erh were examined. Using the Agilent TC-C18 column, caffeine contents in the tea leaves were studied via reversed-phase HPLC with a wavelength setting of 280 nm. Samples were isocratically eluted with a mobile phase consisting of 1% acetic acid and acetonitrile in the ratio of 8:2 with a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. Extraction of caffeine in boiling water was performed to mimic the real-life situation of tea drinking. Results showed that the caffeine content we found ranged from 13mg/g (or 13,000ppm) to 38mg/g (or 38,000ppm), way beyond the 200ppm US FDA regulatory standard.




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